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For the first time,researchers have been able to interfere with the process of learning in thebrain, using induced brain patterns to create a learned behavior. It’s not quite as advanced as aninstant kung-fu download, and it’s not as sleek（考究的） as cognitive inception（开端）, but it’s still an important finding that could lead to new teaching andrehabilitation techniques.
Future therapies coulddecode the brain activity patterns of an athlete or a musician, and use them asa benchmark（标准） forteaching another person a new activity, according to the researchers.
Scientists from BostonUniversity （BU）and ATR Computational NeuroscienceLaboratories in Kyoto used functional magnetic resonance imaging, or fMRI, tostudy the learning process. They were examining the adult brain’s aptitude for visual perceptuallearning, or VPL, in which repetitive training improves a person’s performance on a particular task.Whether adults can do this as well as young people has been an ongoing debatein neuroscience（神经系统科学）.
Led by BU neuroscientistTakeo Watanabe, researchers used a method called decoded fMRI neurofeedback tostimulate the visual cortex（皮层）. First they showed participants circles at different orientations.Then they used fMRI to watch the participants’ brain activity. The researchers were then able to train theparticipants to recreate this visual cortex activity.
The volunteers were againplaced in MRI machines and asked to visualize shapes of certain colors. Theparticipants were asked to “somehow regulate activity in the posterior（后部的） part of the brain” to make a solid green disc aslarge as they could. They were told they would get a paid bonus proportional tothe size of this disc, but they weren’t told anything about what the discmeant. The researchers watched the participants’ brain activity and monitoredthe activation patterns in their visual cortices.
“Participants can betrained to control the overall mean activation of an entire brain region,” thestudy authors write, “or the activation in one region relative to that inanother region.”
This worked even when testsubjects were not aware of what they were learning, the researchers said.
“The most surprising thingin this study is that mere inductions of neural activation patternscorresponding to a specific visual feature led to visual performanceimprovement on the visual feature, without presenting the feature or subjects'awareness of what was to be learned,” Watanabe said in a statement.
Watanabe and colleaguessaid this method can be a powerful tool.
“It can ‘incept’ a personto acquire new learning, skills, or memory, or possibly to restore skills orknowledge that has been damaged through accident, disease, or aging, without aperson’s awareness of what is learned or memorized,” they write.
31. What have researchers been able to do with the help of thestudy?
A. make a person know how to do something without learning.
B. Discover a person’s learning process in the brain.
C. Set up different learning patterns for different people.
D. Enable people to learn kung fu instantly.
第一步：划出题干中的信息词：researchers，北京赛车投注：the help of the study。
第二步：信息词回归原文，定位到第一段第一句：For the firsttime, researchers have been able to interfere with the process of learning inthe brain, using induced brain patterns to create a learned behavior.
第三步：对比题干和原文信息，原文说了科学家的研究主题是学习过程中的脑部活动（the process of learning in the brain），比较四个选项，B选项和原文表述的信息一致，所以本题答案选择B选项。
32. What helps a person to do a particular task better in visualperceptual learning?
A. Testing .
D. self- assessment.
第一步：划出题干中的信息词：particular task，visual perceptual learning。
第二步：信息词回归原文，定位到第三段第二句：They wereexamining the adult brain’s aptitude for visual perceptual learning, or VPL, in whichrepetitive training improves a person’s performance on a particular task.
第三步：对比题干和原文信息，问的是哪种方式可以帮助一个人在视觉知觉学习（visualperceptual learning）中做得更好？原文中提到了repetitive training（重复的训练），比较四个选项，B选项的词Repetition为该词的同义改写，表示的是“重复”这种训练方式。所以本题答案选择B选项。
33. Which of the following statements is true of the experimentparticipants?
A. They learned how to control MRL machines in the experiment.
B. They were paid to take part in the experiment.
C. They were not told what to be learned in the experiment.D. They were notcooperative in the experiment.
第二步：信息词回归原文，第4、5、6段提到了这个实验的过程，实验参与者（experiment participants）在这个过程中是怎么做的也会在这里提示。所以重点浏览这三段内容。第六段出现了答案相关信息：“Participants can be trained to control the overall mean activationof an entire brain region,” the study authors write, “or the activation in one region relative to that in another region.”
第三步：对比题干和原文信息，A选项说他们会接受训练如何在实验中控制MRL这个机器（control MRL machines）。原文也说了be trained to control theoverall mean activation。由此可以判断A选项为正确。再看看其他三个选项，B选项比较有迷惑，说他们参与这个实验是要收费的（were paid），实际上从第五段开头The volunteers were again placed...就可以得知这个选项是不正确的了，既然是志愿者，那么肯定就是不收费的。C选项也可以从这句中判断出来，Thevolunteers were again placed in MRI machines and asked to visualize shapes ofcertain colors.原文中他们是被告知（betold）要做什么事情，怎么做了的。C选项说的是没有，刚好相反，所以不对。D选项说他们在这个实验中不配合（not cooperative），这个没有提到。也不正确。所以本题答案为A选项。
34. The finding of the study is most significant in that learning
A. is full of fun.
B. is visualized.
C. happens unconsciously.
D. becomes unnecessary.
第二步：信息词回归原文，定位到第八段：The mostsurprising thing in this study is that mere inductions of neural activationpatterns corresponding to a specific visual feature led to visual performanceimprovement on the visual feature...
第三步：对比题干和原文信息，原文说到了这个实验中最让人惊奇的地方，就是把学习过程可视化了（specific visual feature）。比较四个选项，B选项符合原文表述的信息，所以这道题的答案选择B选项。
35. Who are most likely to benefit from the stability?
A. Senior people
第一步：划出题干中的信息词：benefit from thestability。
第二步：信息词回归原文，在原文中没有找到相关信息。需要根据前面几个题目的理解来判定。第三段第二句提示了一个关键信息：They were examining the adult brain’s aptitude for visual perceptual learning...这个研究是针对成年人（adult）的，所以成年人最有可能从这个研究结果中获益。比较四个选项，A选项Senior people符合这个意思，所以本题答案为A选项。